Ancient North Africa Timeline

c.1000BC Phoenicians trade to Spain and founding of North African ports

814BC traditional date for the founding of Carthage

509BC Roman Republic

409BC Carthaginian army in Sicily fighting the Greeks

264-241BC first Punic War

218-202BC second Punic War

216BC Hannibal in Italy wins at Cannae

206BC Scipio defeats Carthage in Spain

204BC Scipio invades Africa

202BC Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zanna

149-146BC third Punic War - Final destruction of Carthage

122BC era of great Roman wheat farms in Africa begins

46BC Caesar becomes Emperor

44BC Caesar Murdered

36BC during the fighting for Roman position Octavian takes control of Africa. Romanisation of all North Africa begins

27BC Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar

 197AD Septimus Serverus Emperor

203AD Septimus Serverus visits Africa and the great building programme at Leptis Magna begins

Mid 3rd Century Olive farming and oil production in Africa increases hugely

313AD Christianity official religion of Rome

410AD Goths loot Rome

416AD Visigoths attempt African invasion

429AD Vandals invade Africa

439AD Vandals take Carthage which had been refounded under Octavian

533AD Byzantine reconquest of Africa by Count Belisarius

632AD Death of Muhammad at Medina

641AD Arabs occupy Egypt

642AD Arabs occupy Cyrenaica

643AD Arabs besiege Tripoli and lay waste to Sabratha

641-698AD conquest and counter conquest ends in 698 when Carthage captured by Arabs for good

708AD Septum (Ceuta) the last Byzantine outpost in Africa falls and the Arabs invade Spain

source: Rome in Africa, Susan Raven, Routledge 1993 (first ed. 1969)