Aquatraversion 2.6-2.4Ma big sea level drop, mass extinction of marine fauna, large changes in continental flora and fauna - termed transition from warm Reuverian to cooler Praetiglian in Western Europe - extinction in Europe of tapir and arrival of Asian elephants and equids.

Aullan 1.8-1.6Ma minor sea level drop, arrival in Europe of several african immigrants including homo

Cassian 1.2-0.9Ma no great marine extinctions but large continental effect, "end-Villafranchian" dispersal event, transition to the Middle Pleistocene mammalian assemblage - in W. Europe Galerian assemblage